DHCP Snooping DB in Master and Slave switch

The DHCP binding database is managed on the stack master.  If the stack master fails, all
unsaved bindings are lost. The IP addresses associated with the lost bindings are released. When a stack merge occurs, the stack master that becomes a stack member loses all of the DHCP lease bindings.

If the dhcp snooping database is present in both master and slave and if there is a mismatch in dhcp snooping db the stack members will be removed. This causes the stack member to reload.

CUC – running out of memory

open a SSH session to the CUC Publisher and run the following commands to see why the server is running out of memory. If there is a problem in the memory, it can lead to database issues.

-show status

-show process using-most memory

-utils service list

-utils dbreplication runtimestate

-show process load

-show process using-most cpu

-show process using-most memory

-show perf query instance “Process” “tomcat”

-show perf query instance “Process” ” CuMbxSync ”

-show perf query counter “Memory” “Total KBytes”

-show perf query counter “Memory” “Used KBytes”

-show perf query counter “Memory” “% Mem Used”

-show cuc dbserver disk

-run cuc dbquery unitydyndb select * from vw_tableinformation order by actualrowcount

IPsec Lan-to-Lan Configuration Checker

There is a tool in Cisco to compare your VPN related configuration between 2 Cisco VPN Endpoints (Router or ASA). You capture the show tech from Cisco VPN Endpoints, upload it and compare it. This will help you to check the IKEv1/v2 policy, interesting traffic (Crypto ACL), Crypto map entry. Specifically if there are mismatch in Access-list Entries (Crypto ACL) it will highlight in red.

https://cway.cisco.com/tools/L2L-Checker

Cisco IOS – Minicapture Analyzer

1. monitor capture buffer BUF size 2048 max-size 1518 linear

2. ip access-list extended BUF-FILTER
permit ip host 10.22.8.11 host 10.65.104.102
permit ip host 10.22.8.11 host 10.65.104.101
permit ip host 10.65.104.102 host 10.22.8.11
permit ip host 10.65.104.101 host 10.22.8.11

3. monitor capture buffer BUF filter access-list BUF-FILTER

4. monitor capture point ip cef POINT gi0/1.10 both

5. monitor capture point associate POINT BUF

6. monitor capture point start POINT

7. monitor capture point stop POINT

show monitor capture buffer BUF dump

Note: This output only shows the hex dump of the packets captures. In order to see them in human readable there are two ways.

Export the buffer from the router for further analysis:

8. monitor capture buffer BUF export tftp://PC-IP/BUF.pcap

or

9. monitor capture buffer BUF export flash:BUF.pcap

Easy way to get your file if you do not have permission to transfer to tftp or SFTP server (Firewall team might be so strict…show stoppes for your session with your TAC)

root@Linux server]# scp admin@X.X.X.X:flash:BUF.pcap /root/temp/

admin is the username with privilege 15, X.X.X.X is the public IP of the router, flash:BUF.pcap, /root/temp/ is where you would want the file to saved on your Linux Server.

Make sure you have the following commands on the router.

ip scp server enable
ip ssh source ip ssh source-interface PublicIPInterface
aaa new-model
aaa authentication login default local
aaa authorization exec default local

Top 21 Tips to Turn a Slow day into Productive day

1. First and foremost, your mobile phone: The mobile phone, although has made life easier, yet on the lopsided, it has also become one of the hurdle while you work. This is because, every single second you get a message, whatsapp or a call which is an interruption in the work. Just unplug your mobile phone, switch it off, disable all the notifications and relax for a minute as the smallest interruptions kills the productivity. So, concentrate on the work and say bye to the calls and the notifications.

2. Make a list of things to be done: It is better to make a list of all things that you wish to do at first. It becomes easier to do task when the things are listed on a piece of paper. And once you have done that work cross it off the list, it makes you feel good to check a finished off task. Doing the priority things initially makes your day productive and well spent.

3. When you are tired, complete the easy tasks first: It makes your day slow when you are tired and will not be able to complete the big tasks. In that case, you can continue with the small task, or to be very frank the unimportant things, as some day you will have to do that too. So, instead of wasting time, it is better to first complete the easy task and be productive. You can also do it by mentioning the simplest things in the list making the bullet points.

4. Resting is also something productive: It’s not that work is entitled to make a productive day. You can rest and still do the same. This is because when you rest, the brain comes in peace and you tend to feel enthusiastic. The gathered enthusiasm gives you the vigor to work better, hence turning the coming day into the productive day. So, this way you also become productive and the outcome too.

5. Get the things on your desk organized: That’s a herculean task, right? Oh yes, because this is one thing really not liked by anyone. But, this is something you can do when you have nothing else to do in the office. This is common to say that you are not a regular type of person who organizes things on a daily basis, so it is good to keep everything in order and turn a day into a productive one.

6. You can read an engrossing book: While you are in the office, keep books to read in your free time. Reading books makes you learn something free of cost. So, why not get engrossed in the books when you have nothing else to do in office. Also in case you are feeling tired, you can refresh yourself with some interesting books and help fight with the slow day of your life.

7. Check your emails: On a regular basis your mail id may get flooded with lots of emails, so managing all of them may get difficult on a regular basis. In order to make it simple, use your free time fighting with your emails. Delete all the unwanted ones and keep the important ones with you. Even if you have someone to reply, do it by sending an apology for a late reply. So, by this you can turn your day into a productive day.

8. Do not try to do multi tasks: Multitasking is handling more than one work at a time. This is not about doing different office works at a time, but kidding yourself by using Facebook in the other tab and work in the other tab. May be you check Facebook and twitter very rare, but even if you do after one hour or so, it is being an interruption in your work. It will be counted into the interruptions and will become a hindrance in what you do.

9. Help someone out in the work place: If you have nothing to do then you can help someone with the work. Just like to assist some intern or the fresher at the work place. This way your time will also pass and you will be able to make new friends. If you will help someone who has lots on his plate, maybe next time when you have lots on your plate, someone lends his or her hand to you. This should not be your sole motive, but this is something you can certainly do when you have nothing productive.

10. Complete your pending work: It is possible to have lots of pending work with you, but you may not get the time to complete it just because of the regular other priority things. So, this is the time when you can finish all your pending tasks and make yourself busy; hence turning the day into productive day. This is possible to complete the things you felt to be unnecessary in the free time, utilizing the slow day in the office.

11. Learn something new: If you have nothing specific to do in the office, then it is better to move to some expert of your office and learn new things like you can learn a new language (HTML). You can practice it in the mean time and learn many other new things.

12. Talk to someone: Yes, need not widen your eyes as talking to someone is in itself something productive. This is because, when you talk to someone, you don’t just talk, but also listen and listening can help you in knowing many unknown facts and things, hence increasing your knowledge level. Not just this, when you say something, it helps in retaining that thing for longer period of time. Apart from that, you also come across many new things, new culture, styles, ideas from different people in the work place.

13. Write an article: If you like to write, then utilize your free time in writing something good. You can also work with someone as a freelancer and it will not only help increase your bank balance, but also your resume will get something to add on every new year. Not just this, although your resume will get enrich yet your brain will also get trained, thus getting a life time experience doing nothing more complicated. So, it‘s better to write something like blogs, articles, opinions etc.

14. Research for something: You may not do something in detail. So, why waste the time in doing unproductive things? It is better to enhance your knowledge by doing some research work. Research will not only help tell you the facts about the topic you are about to work on but also you will be knowing some things apart from the confined issue, which is appreciable enough. The research work is interesting and also keeps a person hooked.

15. Update the website: You can update both the websites, of your office as well as of your own. If you have an incomplete website then there is nothing more unprofessional than this. So, do not keep the website half built rather give it a strong backing and make it a success. Updating a website will make you famous, raise the hourly rate and also the search results in the google will also rise. This will ultimately help your company at the end of the day. So, do not waste time and do something productive like this and turn the slow day into competent manner.

16. Buy some present for the business or the company: If you are running your own business, then you can do your business some favor by buying a little present. That present will help make you feel you did something and also it gives an inner happiness. The gifts should be such that it broadens the horizon of your business also by being assured the money is being spent well and not wasted. So, this is a great thing to do if it is directly helping you out.

17. Plan the next visit if any: You may have something to do by the next day. If you have to do many things, then better not to sit idle and plan the next day’s working from the scratch. This will utilize your free time and the timetable for the next day will also get ready. The slow day can be turned into something productive in many ways. So, according to your convenience, you can choose the work to be done.

18. Listen to your favorite music: Trust me, the day can not only be made productive by doing some hardcore work in office. It can also be done by enjoying and relaxing your mind. This can be done any way you like, for instance, by watching movies, listening to your favorite songs, etc. Not just this, you can also paint if you are a great painter. Capture the beautiful moments with your camera if in case you are a camera lover.

19. Playing games is not a bad idea: It is always fine to sometimes do nothing but still do something. Like if you will be playing games, people might call you a time killer, but it’s you who know that it is also one of the ways of utilizing the time in a better manner. It is not necessary to work the whole day despite of feeling already low in terms of health and fitness. Playing and relaxing yourself is also something good you do for yourself. So, whenever someone points you out for wasting time on music and songs, let them speak; because they perhaps be saying it out of jealousy.

20. Reach out for the light work: When you feel like getting bored and doing like nothing. Do not worry, this happens to every second person on earth who is working. So, whenever you feel like sitting free, but still figuring out to make the day productive enough, then do some light work which is not heavy and burdened for the heart. The light work can be done by comparing the work with competitors, observing the colleagues, supervising the freshers, clearing all the unwanted things from your desk and the cabin. These things do not require heavy thinking and still will make the slow day into the productive one.

21. Expand your network: You can open your whatsapp and talk to the one’s who you never have chatted with since you became busy. Talk to them about what they are doing now days and what they aspire to do. By asking this, you may get some ideas to do and engage in when you feel like doing nothing but still making a day memorable. You can even call to the friends and the relatives and cherish your mood. Also, you can delete some numbers if you feel like having any extra and of no use to you.

So, above are some of the important tips that you should keep in mind to change the slow day into the productive one. It is said that time is precious and one should not waste the time. Whether it be entertaining or educating yourself by reading publications. The slow day comes many times in lives, instead of feeling bad and less energetic, one should think of ways to carve a niche even in those lazy days

How to Evaluate New Product Ideas: 19 Steps Guide

1. Potential market size: Whenever a businessman starts his/her business, the first and foremost decision to be taken is that choosing a suitable product idea to be launched. And to execute that decision, a businessman need to collect all the information about the potential market size. By understanding potential market size, a person can understand the exact need of that product which is supposed to be launched by their company.

2. Potential demand: Whether it is a startup business or existing business, before deciding unique product ideas for the business it is necessary to understand the potential demand for that particular product. Understanding the potential demand for that particular product idea which needed to be launched by that company makes the profit making easy. Therefore, it is important to understand the potential demand for the new product ideas so that there won’t be any kind of loss or risk of failure of that product idea.

3. Keep track of competitors: By keeping a track of potential competitors a businessman can start eliminating the factors which can be a potential risk for the company. Starting a new business or starting a chain new product ideas can be considered as a risk factor because of existing competition for the business. There may be possibilities that these competitors can be a big threat to the new business idea in the business market. Therefore, by holding all the details about an existing competition in the business market makes a smooth flow of launching of the new product.

4. Understanding growing market: Launching a new product idea is not as easy, it seems, before launching such product idea. It is necessary to understand the ground work. The most important groundwork for the selection of the proper product idea would be made by the growing market line. By understanding growing market, a business will get an idea of the product which can satisfy the needs and wants of the customers. And end up gaining a profitable deal for the new product ideas which needs to be launched.

5. A product which is not available locally: While choosing a product a businessman need to search the business market, whether the product which you are selecting should not be easily available in the local market. If the product is available in local market then it can be considered as a potential threat to the business. Therefore, it is better to choose ideas for  new product which is not available in the local market and ultimately all the potential buyers will be interested to buy that product.

6. Target buyers or potential buyers: A launching of a new product idea requires a lot of market research, such as understanding the product and targeting the buyers who will be considered as potential customers for the business. Target marketing is a familiar element in the business market, it defines that choosing a group of customers or target who can really be profitable while selling that particular product or services.

7. Deciding a selling price: Once the process of selecting a suitable product for the business is decided then the second thing is to decide about the selling price of the product. A selling price of the product is an amount which is a marginal profit ratio of the actual selling price. Profit is calculated from the amount which has been deduced the selling price from the actual product price. And ultimately it comes to the profit which is the main motive of any business.

8. Potential profit ratio: A businessman should be able to handle all the financial details of the company which is required to be successful in business market. And a potential profit ratio is a marginal profit ratio, which a company needs to earn by selling their product to their potential buyers. And at the end, these profits should meet the marginal ratio of investment so that there should be considerable profit from the business. Therefore, the potential profit ratio keeps all the selling in the track of the profit earning process.

9. Varieties of product designs: A customer needs to believe that the product which has been offered to him / her have another alternative element as per their taste. While launching a product, a businessman need to be prepared with other alternative designs of the product to satisfy the needs and wants of the customers. As we all know that the customer is the main boss therefore, it is important to provide satisfaction to them by offering different varieties of product to keep them intact with that particular product and product lines.

10. Offering a suitable discount or sale: A business can only survive by their returning customers and this can happen by offering them some kind of discounts in the product or product line with marginal profit. By offering some kind of discounted product, a businessman will be successful in holding their existing customer without any loss or damage and it will also attract new customers to the business. Timely update of product range and price will make things easier for the business.

11. Product size and weight: A product which needed to be offered to their potential buyers should keep in mind that the offering product should maintain certain kinds of size and weight. Every product vary in their size and weight as they vary as per their designs, but a manufacturer need to understand one thing that he/she should offer a product which should be reasonable with its quality and quantity. Any kind of difference in their product line can expose their business very badly.

12. Durability of the product: While manufacturing a product, a manufacture need to keep in mind that they should satisfy the needs and wants of the customers. As the common thinking goes a buyer likes to buy such product which relates his price range. For example, a buyer buys a product of a value and all of the sudden the product bought didn’t delivered itself as it was promised, and at that time the question comes that the product is having a very poor durability. To avoid such things it is necessary to keep in mind that quality, quantity and durability with reasonable price are the most common elements that a buyer or customer expects in their product.

13. Accurate launch time of product: For example, as the monsoon season starts people starts buying umbrellas. Therefore, if a person willing to start a business of umbrellas then it is a right time for his / her business. It is very necessary to understand the right time for the launch of products. Therefore, if a businessman fails to judge that accurate time of launch, then the business may face serious loss. To avoid such stupidity a launch of a product should be accurate as per the needs of the customers.

14. Deciding a product type: A product type is a variety of product which needs to be clear with their nature of availability. The nature of the product in the sense that whether the idea of the product manufacturing is a disposable or a consumable. By differentiating disposable and consumable product range, a business can also differentiate its potential buyers because there are customers who believes in buying disposable goods and in other side there are customers who only buys consumable goods. Therefore, product type should be specified so that there will common product difference.

15. Specification of the product: While choosing a product specification, a businessman should keep himself / herself in the place of customers. If a businessman could understand the point of view of potential buyers then a product specification goes smooth as planned. It is necessary to understand all the main elements of the product. These product specifications help a potential buyer to decide the type of product which he / she lies to buy and it makes a clear division of its validity.

16. Terms and conditions: While launching a product line, the launching company need to be clear with its terms and conditions. These terms and conditions helps a customer to make his / her final decision to purchase with the trust that the product which a customer is buying will deliver all the elements of which it was promised by the company. And still if there are any confusions, then a customer can feel free to contact the company with their valuable complaints.

17. Safety and security: For example, when a company decides to launch a range of beauty products then it is the responsibility of the company to deliver the product which is safe and secured of customers’ usage. A beauty product is a range of product which consists of all the ingredients which can affect customer skill externally. As it is a product of external usage, a manufacturer needs to keep all the safety matters of that product.

18. Maintaining a startup trend: A businessman after deciding all the elements of the product and the market should start focusing on the fact of marketing the product. Recently there is a trend kind of marketing, which has been introduced. These startup trends help that particular product or the company to create a difference in the business market. By publishing certain kind of startup trends, a company can be successful in attracting a range of customers other than potential buyers. Therefore, it should be clear that every business holds on the ground of marketing of the product.

19. Promotions of product: As mentioned earlier, startup trends requires promotional activities. These promotional activities help that particular company to launch their product in a very grand manner to reach most of the customers. Therefore, a business can start establishing some promotional activities or sample products which gives an idea about the new product. By these activities the customers will decide to buy such new product after using such sample products. And these kind of promotional activities can build brand loyalty among other customers.

To end this discussion, we would suggest all the existing and startup businessman to consider all the above mentioned elements before starting or evaluating any new product ideas. These product ideas require patience and perfection to reach its ultimate goal. Every single business has their own objectives and objectives specifies the main motive of their company. These motives helps to start a honest and safe product range which can satisfy the needs and wants of the customers. Therefore, when a business starts thinking about launching a new product idea, he / she should consider all the above mentioned factors, before starting any business or company. All the above mentioned elements can guide a businessman things which can favor his / her new product ideas.

How to sell a Pen – Sales interview question

There are exactly four sales skills the interviewer is looking to see when you answer:

1. How you gather information
2. How you respond to information
3. How you deliver information
4. And how you ask for something (closing)

Here is a conversation for selling a pen. You can memorize the script, but more importantly, memorize the sales framework

Me: (I slowly roll the pen between my index and thumb fingers.) When was the last time you used a pen?
CEO: This morning.
Me: Do you remember what kind of pen that was?
CEO: No.
Me: Do you remember why you were using it to write?
CEO: Yes. Signing a few new customer contracts.
Me: Well I’d say that’s the best use for a pen (we have a subtle laugh).
Wouldn’t you say signing those new customer contracts is an important event for the business? (nods head) Then shouldn’t it be treated like one. What I mean by that is, here you are signing new customer contracts, an important and memorable event. All while using a very unmemorable pen.
We grew up, our entire lives, using cheap BIC pens because they get the job done for grocery lists and directions. But we never gave it much thought to learn what’s best for more important events.
This is the pen for more important events. This is the tool you use to get deals done. Think of it as a symbol for taking your company to the next level. Because when you begin using the right tool, you are in a more productive state of mind, and you begin to sign more new customer contracts.
Actually. You know what? Just this week I shipped ten new boxes of these pens to Elon Musk’s office.
Unfortunately, this is my last pen today (reach across to hand pen back to CEO). So, I suggest you get this one. Try it out. If you’re not happy with it, I will personally come back next week to pick it up. And it won’t cost you a dime.
What do you say?

1. Find out how they last used a pen (gather info)
2. Emphasize the importance of the activity they last used a pen (respond to info)
3. Sell something bigger than a pen, like a state of mind (deliver info)
4. Ask for the buy (closing)

SIP Trunk registration using DNS and SIP-Reinvite configuration

sip-ua
credentials number 1234556789 username RIP56831210 password XXXXXXXXXX realm StuartBro
authentication username RIP56831210 password XXXXXXXXXXXX realm StuartBro
no remote-party-id
retry invite 1
retry register 3
timers register 800
registrar asn.ff.techran.net expires 3600
sip-server dns:Dish.sbc.cric.com

dial-peer voice 140 voip
destination-pattern 00[2-9]T
session target dns:asn.ff.techran.net

CUCM end users are not imported into CUC after reinstall

This is because the CUCM actually holds a database where all of these users are still tagged as being imported into UC already.

  1. Open SSH to the CUCM

    a) For each user, find the mapping row:

    run sql select pkid from enduserappservermap where fkenduser in (select pkid from enduser where userid = ‘my_user_alias’) and fkappserver in (select pkid from appserver where ipaddr = ‘my_connection_server_ip’)

    In the query above, replace my_user_alias with the alias of the end user and replace my_connection_server_ip with the IP address of the Connection server (or whatever the old Connection server IP address may have been if you changed it after the rebuild).

    b) Delete the mapping row:

    You should only get back one row. Delete it. Replace my_pkid with the actual pkid that you got back:

    run sql delete from enduserappservermap where pkid = ‘my_pkid’\

    To delete all users, just do “run sql delete from enduserappservermap”

  2.  

    Try to import that user again via AXL.  That’s the user by user way of doing it if you don’t have too many, but if you’re confident they all can be deleted at once you can do the following:

    a.  Find all of the users mapped

    run sql select * from enduserappservermap

    b.  The users should all have matching value in the “fkappserver” object ID column if they were mapped to the same pre-existing Connection server.  Once you’ve confirmed the “fkappserver” object ID of the old UC server, issue the bulk delete command, this is irreversible!

    run sql delete from enduserappservermap where fkappserver = ‘fkappserver_for_old_UC’